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Honey Bees & Hives
What is a Beehive?
Names of Beehive Parts
Honey Bee Biology
Honey Bee Taxonomy
Honey Bee Sub-species
Extracting Honey
Hive Management
Beehive Inspection
Florida Beekeeper Registration
L L Langstroth the Father of American Beekeeping

Bee Concerns
Bee Stings
Diseases Pests Parasites
Land Mines, Bees & CCD
Africanized Honey Bee (AHB)
Diversity with 88 Years of Isolation
Putting the Hive Back in Nature's Place

Bee Friendly Garden
Honey Plants for Florida

Dress for Success
Beehive Building
Beekeeping Supplies

Beekeeping Mentoring Workshops
Bee Associations and Organizations
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Photo Gallery
2010 Photo Gallery
2010 USFBG Gallery
2011 USFBG Gallery
2011 Florida Master Beekeeper Bee College
USFBG Video Gallery
Jamaica Teaching Trip
FSBA Monticello Gallery
External Links
Beekeeper Calendar

Jan 22nd


Feb 19th

Mar 5, 26th

Apr 16th

May 21st


Jun 18th


Jul 16th

Aug 20th

Sep 17th

Oct 22nd

Nov 19th

Dec 17th

Pollination, Bee Friendly Garden, Bee stings, Beekeeper mentoring program,What is a beehive  USF

Beekeeping equipment and tools, Protection, Honeybee biology, Smoker practice USF

Building beehives (hammers, wood glue, hive kits) USF

Swarms, splits and package bees (bring hive for bees) USF

Beehive inspection, Diseases, Pests, Parasites USF

Florida Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and Best Management Practices (BMP) USF

Queens and requeening USF

Products of the hive, Honey extraction USF

Projects and Bee College Prep USF

Fall management USF

Winter management USF

Spring management USF

Honey Bee sub-species

Bold species are available or present in the United States.


Africanized - Apis mellifera scutellata  - hardiness, quick build-up,

swarmy, abscond, build brood over stores, no cold resistance


All-American- Italian hybrid mite resistance, quick build-up, gentle, not swarmy, production, wintering, housekeeping


All-Star- Italian hybrid


Anatolian– Apis mellifera Anatolica - prolific, wintering, vitality, longevity, orientation

Aggressive in cold, enormous number of queen cells, swarming


Buckfast – gentle, mite resistance, spring build-up, not swarmy, wintering, longevity, production, housekeeping


Carniolan – Apis mellifera Carnica – good temper, calm on the combs, industry, orientation, hardiness, brood disease resistance, winter survival, thriftiness, minimal propolis, good on cold and wet days

Swarming, premature spring build-up, reluctance to enter supers, poor comb building, suspend brood rearing in pause of honey flow


Cape – Apis mellifera Capensis – workers lay by thelytoky


Caucasian – Apis mellifera Caucasica – gentle, tongue-reach, stores food close to brood, stores on minimum comb, work cool and wet

Brace comb, propolis, susceptible to disease, late build-up, drifting, robbing, wet cappings


Cretan- Apis mellifera Adami – good production

Aggressive, clusters of queen cells


Cyprian - Apis mellifera cypria – not swarmy, best performance, best wintering, vitality,quick build-up, disease resistant, no brace comb, orientation

Limited fertility, defensive, laying workers


Egyptian – Apis mellifera Fasciata (Lamarckii) – no propolis, very prolific, calm, self-defense, low drifting

Aggressive, moderate fertility, no winter cluster, clusters of queen cells, No cold resistance


German – Apis mellifera mellifera – 3 sub-types - mellifera (brown bee) lehzeni (heathland bee) nigra (black bee) overwinter well

Slow spring build-up


Greek – Apis mellifera Cecropia – fecundity, reluctance to swarm, colony strength, good housekeeping

Excessive propolis, brace comb, watery flat cappings


Italian – Apis mellifera Ligustica – industry, gentleness, fertility, reluctance to swarm, comb building zeal, white cappings, willingness to enter supers, cleanliness, disease resistance

Excessive brood rearing, lacks vitality, drifting


Midnight - Caucasian and Carniolan hybrid


Minnesota Hygienic – disease resistant, hygienic


Russian – mite resistance, winter hardiness, less propolis, quick build-up

always raising queen cells, swarmy, small population even during flow


Saharan – Apis mellifera Sahariensis – vitality, longevity, comb-building

Low fecundity, cold susceptible


SMR – Suppression of Mite Reproduction – mite tolerant, hygeinic


Starline – Italian hybrid, vigor, production, fast build-up

Large winter population, poor overwinter


Syrian - Apis mellifera  syriaca –



Tellian or Arab - Apis mellifera intermissa – pollen gathering, vitality

Defensive, swarmy, excessive brood rearing, heavy propolis, disease susceptibility,


Tien Shan - Apis mellifera pomonella-  Apidologie 34 (2003) 367–375 © INRA/DIB-AGIB/ EDP Sciences, 2003 DOI: 10.1051/apido:2003037


VSH – Varroa Suppression Hygeinics


Yugo Russian and Carniolan hybrid, overwinters well, not swarmy


Asian or Himalayan bees are not able to interbreed with the previous due to a different number of chromosomes.


Dwarf - Apis florea - smallest known, open nest


Giant or Rock - Apis dorsata - forage at night during moon-lit nights, vicious, open nests, largest, migratory


Oriental - Apis cerana - cavity dweller, absconding


Himalayan cliff - Apis laboriosa or Apis dorsata laboriosa - similar to dorsata